Civil War Diary of Joseph Fant Kauffman
Dated March 28, 1862 through August 28, 1862
Joseph Fant (Franklin) Kauffman was born 22 Dec. 1838, the son of Barney and Rebecca Mauck Kauffman. He grew to manhood in the Kauffman home at Mauck's Mill, Page County, Virginia. He was the eldest of eight children, three brothers, Enoch Van Buren; Philip Marion; and John William Kauffman; and four sisters, Ellen Virginia; Julia Ann; Mary Magdalene; and Susan Elizabeth Kauffman. His father, Barney Kauffman, died 10 April 1855 and Joseph became the head of the family. On 20 Dec. 1860 Joseph was united in marriage to Nancy Seatta Beasley, daughter of Isaac & Ann R. Beasley. One child was born to this union, William Kauffman, who died on 6 March 1873, aged 11 years, 1 month and 3 days.
Joseph F. Kauffman served a short time in the State Militia under Captain John D. Aleshire in the early part of the Civil War and on 28 March 1862 volunteered for regular service. He joined Company K. 10th Virginia Regiment at Culpeper Court House and served under General Stonewall Jackson in his Valley Campaign. He fought in the battles around Richmond, Cold Harbor, Malvern Hill and Cedar Mountain where he helped to bury his uncle, John W. Mauck, who was killed in that battle on 9 August 1862. He kept the events of each day in this diary from the time he left home on Friday, 28 of March 1862, to join the army until he was killed in the battle of Second Manassas on 28 August 1862.
Surnames found in The Diary
Barham ( my grandfather )
Fri., 28 Mar. 1862: Left home at 7. Arrived Culpeper Court House 8 O'clock, and put up at the Express House and paid 50 cents for a bed.
Sat., 29 Mar. 1862: Still at Court House waiting for regiment to come. The wagon came today at 2 o'clock. The regiment is still at the river.
Sun., 30 Mar 1862: A regiment of cavalry passed down today. The regiment has not come up yet. The weather is very bad.
Mon., 31 Mar. 1862: I started to camp but the train did not go down so I could not go. Everything quiet.
Tue., 01 Apr. 1862: I arrived at camp. Found everything quiet.
Wed., 02 Apr. 1862: Today I performed my first guard duty. There was some Yankee Cavalry camped in sight of our post but they soon fell back.
Thu., 03 Apr. 1862: Everything quiet in camp. Fine weather.
Fri., 04 Apr. 1862: Everything quiet.
Sat., 05 Apr. 1862: Everything quiet, but it is raining. I was on picket duty at the ford last night.
Sun., 06 Apr. 1862: Today we received orders to strap all our blankets and prepare for marching at a moments warning.
Mon., 07 Apr. 1862: Today the Yankees made their appearance on the other side of the river and fired twelve rounds of artillery but did no damage. They then retreated. It began to rain and snow and we were ordered back to camp. Eatables were scarce. The porkers stand a bad chance.
Tue., 08 Apr. 1862: I camped last night in the Cat Tail Church. Some of the boys are out killing hogs again this morning. Still raining. We are in a house close to the church.
Wed., 09 Apr. 1862: We are still in the house and the weather is very bad. It has begun to snow.
Thu., 10 Apr. 1862: Everything quiet but it is quite cool.
Fri., 11 Apr. 1862: Everything quiet and a beautiful day.
Sat., 12 Apr. 1862: Today we received marching orders and tonight we are cooking our rations.
Sun., 13 Apr. 1862: Everything quiet in camp. The orders countermanded. The weather damp and cloudy.
Mon., 14 Apr. 1862: Everything quiet in camp. I was in battalion drill for the first time.
Tue., 15 Apr. 1862: Today the Yankees came in sight. But a few shots from the Baltimore Artillery soon made them get out of sight. On drill again. The weather warm and cloudy.
Wed., 16 Apr. 1862: Today there was an alarm given and we were ordered to roll up our blankets and fall in immediately. We formed a line and stacked arms and that was the last of it. We returned to quarters.
Thu., 17 Apr. 1862: Received marching orders at sun up. About 4 o'clock we got on the cars and arrived at C.C.H. (Culpeper Court House) and camped nearby. En route for the Valley.
Fri., 18 Apr. 1862: We resumed our march this morning about 9 o'clock. After a difficult and tiresome march through the heat we halted at the Robinson River, three miles below Madison Court House. Thunder showers. Slept in a straw stack. Pretty tired.
Sat., 19 Apr. 1862: After a hard days march through mud and rain, we camped in Standardsville. My feet has pretty near given out. We waded the Robinson River this morning and the Rapidan this evening. Got a good dinner free of charge. Mrs. Buckner is a fine old lady.
Sun., 20 Apr. 1862: We quartered in a house last night. We began our march at 2 o'clock today. Marched four miles and quartered in a barn. My feet very sore. Still cloudy and raining. The people very kind and especially the ladies.
Mon., 21 Apr. 1862: We crossed the Ridge today through the rain and camped at the foot of the Ridge and slept in a barn. Hard times. Still it rains.
Tue., 22 Apr. 1862: Today we joined General Jackson's Division and elected officers. They are as follows: R. S. Parks, captain; D.C. Grayson, first lieutenant; William E. Pittman, second lieutenant; J.W. Mauck, third lieutenant.
Wed., 23 Apr. 1862: Reorganisement of the Regiment. Everything quiet through camp. A fine day.
Thu., 24 Apr. 1862: Everything quiet in camp, but very strict orders now. Rain.
Fri., 25 Apr. 1862: Nothing of interest. Cloudy and cool. I saw four Yankee prisoners.
Sat., 26 Apr. 1862: Today we were ordered out towards Harrisonburg. Col. Ashby had a skirmish with the enemy and killed one of them. We retreated to camp. We are under marching orders. 12 o'clock at night when Mac got to camp.
Sun., 27 Apr. 1862: Today we marched across the river but soon returned to camp.
Mon., 28 Apr. 1862: We are laying in ambush for the enemy. We have marched eight miles this morning. Feet sore. The enemy is reported as having gone back to Harrisonburg. Still in the woods close to McGaheysville. Warm day. Back to camp again. Didn't see any Yankees.
Tue., 29 Apr. 1862: Today I have been employed washing my clothes. I washed one pair of drawers, one shirt, two pair of socks, one towell, and one haversack. Raining. I heard heavy firing in the direction of McGaheysville. They are shelling the woods that we were laying in yesterday. Consequently there was no one hurt. Capt. Shanks was shot accidentally today. He belonged to Col. Ashby's Regiment. He died instantly. Company drilling. I have a stiff neck today.
Wed., 30 Apr. 1862: We were aroused from our slumbers this moning by the fire and drum beating at 2 o'clock. We left camp at 4 o'clock and halted in the woods that we were in on the 28th. The whole division came over the river this morning. I still have a pain in my neck. In crossing the river I could see the end of the mountain close home. I would like to see home once more. Attention! shouted our Col. At last every man was up and at his post. Each and everyone was expecting to be off to Harrisonburg but soldiers are doomed to disappointment, and that was our case this time. We were turned back toward camp, but did not get there. We turned off the Pike at Dr. Jenning's Mill en route for Port Republic. We traveled about four or five miles from our old camp through mud and rain, and we are soaked to the skin, and half starved. Drew 1/2 pound of bacon per man for a days rations. A small quantity for a hungry soldier, with nothing else. A poor part of the country. Still raining and we have no tent.
Thu., 01 May 1862: We have just gotten through with our meat. Are waiting for orders to march. I slept soundly last night on a pile of rails. It looks very much like rain this morning. We have just finished our supper, 12 o'clock at night. We began our march to Port Republic today. The worst road I ever traveled over, rained all the time. The mud has no bottom at all. Oh! will it never stop raining. We traveled about eight or ten miles today without anything to eat.
Fri., 02 May 1862: It has cleared off this morning and has the appearance of a fine day. We left our camp early this morning and are now lying in the woods to the left of Port Republic about 1/2 mile awaiting further orders. Orders came at last. We fell in and began our march and are camped on top of the Blue Ridge at a place called Brown's Gap. I begin to think that old Jack is a hard master from the way he is putting us thru. We surely see hard times. It is 12 o'clock at night. We had a beautiful day. God knows where we will stop. My feet have given out but still I have to travel on. I wish peace would be declared.
Sat., 03 May 1862: This is a beautiful morning, the sun shines out most beautifully. We will begin our daily toils in a few minutes. It makes me think of home and friends to think that we are here on this lonely mountain and leaving our homes behind and not knowning whither we are going. But I hope for the better. We are now camped about a mile and a half from Nichols River in Albemarle County. It is a hilly country. We had a splendid road from Port Republic this far. We marched about 15 miles today. I feel very well tonight.
Sun., 04 May 1862: We have received orders to march again for Staunton. A fine morning. I have caught a bad cold. We have halted at the river waiting to hear which way we are to go. There are three trains on the tracks of the Virginia Central Railroad. It is now 12 o'clock. I am sitting on a hill close to the railroad. Alas, the train left us and went ahead and we are now at the foot of the Blue Ridge close to the Great Tunnel, waiting for the train to take us to Staunton. I am pretty tired. We had a pretty day for marching. We did not get away until daylight.
Mon., 05 May 1862: We left Afton Station at day break on the cars, 16 miles to Staunton. We arrived here at 9 o'clock this morning. Passed thru the Tunnel. We halted close to the Deaf and Dumb Institute. I feel pretty bad this morning. I did not sleep any last night. We had to leave before we got our breakfast. We are camped now about 11 1/2 miles West of Staunton. Everything seems quiet in camp. I have got the headache very bad this morning. Raining.
Tue., 06 May 1862: I am better this morning. We are under marching orders today, Ordered to have three days rations in our haversacks. We left our camp at 2 o'clock and we are camped near Buffalo Gap, nine miles West of Staunton. A fine day.
Wed., 07 May 1862: We began our march this morning at day break, and are now advancing on the enemy. We are at the foot of the mountain and the enemy is on top. We have passed the Yankee camp that they stayed in last night. Gen. Jackson ran them out of their camp in double quick hurry this morning, and they left their tents and cooking utensils, a lot of guns and commissaries. He killed two of the enemy and took nine prisoners. "Attention!" was heard from the Col. We were ready directly and off we started, and the Yankees had left the top of the mountain and we followed them to the foot of the mountain on the other side. The enemy formed a line of battle and fired a few shells at our troops but did no damage. We halted in a hollow and laid there awhile and then returned to the East side of the mountain and camped on the enemies camping ground. My feet are sore. It has begun to rain. 8 o'clock at night.
Thu., 08 May 1862: We crossed the mountain this morning in pursuit of the enemy. We have stopped on the ground where the Yankees had their battery placed yesterday evening. 9 o'clock. We came up with them about 3 o'clock and they began to fire on us. Our regiment did not get into it. It was the hour to try men's souls but we went into it cool and deliberate. Our Col. fell in the early part of the engagement and our Capt. was wounded in the foot. The firing ceased about 8 o'clock in the night. We lay on the field until one o'clock and then fell back about three miles to get provisions and prepare for the worst. I did not get much rest last night. To see the wounded coming in from the front made a man feel curious.
(Compilers note: Joseph Kauffman was describing the battle of McDowell. The wounded Captain was R.S. Parks and the Colonel that was mortally wounded was Colonel Gibbons.)
Fri., 09 May 1862: Yesterday will be a memorable day for me. I scarcely had any idea how it went in a battle until I got in it. I pray to God that I never get into another one as hot as that was. I could see the men falling in every direction as we were going in. I cannot tell or have any idea of the number killed and wounded but it was a great deal. I am on picket at this time. The fight occurred on the Bullpasture River. Oh, how I would like to hear from home at this time. We were relieved from picket and followed on after the Regiment which had followed on after the enemy. The enemy is still retreating and we are still in pursuit. We camped tonight about three miles beyond the battle ground. Our cavalry took all their baggage and a quantity of ammunition and some prisoners, among them a Colonel.
Sat., 10 May 1862: We started on our march at sun rise this morning and are now in 8 miles of Monterey and forty two miles from Staunton. We are in the mountains now. It sure is the most mountainous country I have every seen. After a march of twelve or fifteen miles we have halted for the night on the road leading from Monterey to Franklin. We expected to have skirmishes with them today but they left before we came up. The cavalry took ten Yankees. Nothing to eat and do not know when we will get anything. Hard times and I feel harder coming.
Sun., 11 May 1862: We have marched about ten or twelve miles today and fully expected to get in the fight, but we have not got into it yet. We are about two or three miles from Franklin. There have been skirmishes today between our scouts and the enemy's We are drawing in line on a hill but it is getting dark. The enemy has been throwing shells all about in the woods. We have not got to camp. We are camping about four or five miles from Franklin.
Mon., 12 May 1862: This morning we got up at four o'clock and started out to support the picket lines. There was some firing between the pickets. We took two prisoners and killed one. Lay in the bushes until about four o'clock. We then fell back. We are now camped nine miles from Franklin. Fine weather and good roads. My feet sore.
Tue., 13 May 1862: Today we fell back about three miles and camped for the night. Everything quiet. Looks like rain.
Wed., 14 May 1862: We are still on the retreat. We marched 15 miles today through the rain and mud. It began to rain this morning and is raining yet. Provisions are scarce. The boys all are grumbling. We camped on the same ground we had camped on on the ninth inst. We are to draw one days rations this evening but think I'll feel better when I get something to eat. We are having a hard time of it at this time.
Thu., 15 May 1862: This morning we began to retreat at daybreak and we are now camped on the East side of the Shenandoah Mountain, twnety two miles West of Staunton. We marched fifteen miles today through the mud. I feel very much worsted. It has begun to rain again. Very hungry.
Fri., 16 May 1862: It rained all night and still raining. Today being a day set apart by the President for fasting and praying, we rested for once. It being the fourth day we have rested since we left the Rappahannock River. We have received orders to march tomorrow morning at six o'clock. We bought some flour at the rate of $20.00 per barrel. Our rations very slim. We drew half gill of whiskey per man. I have been engaged cleaning up my gun which is very much out of order.
Sat., 17 May 1862: We began our march according to orders. We marched about eight or ten miles and we camped in a mile or so of Stribling Springs. We had a bad road today. The boys are getting in high spirits with the expectation of getting out of the mountain and getting close to home. Home! How sweet it sounds.
Sun., 18 May 1862: This day we spent in washing our clothes and cleaning up generally, as we lay by. It did not look like Sunday today. It looked more like a general wash day. No news of interest.
Mon., 19 May 1862: We left our camp this morning at six o'clock and we are halted now at Stribling Springs. It is a beautiful place of rest and sporting in time of peace. Only to God it was so now. Ten o'clock in the morning we left the Springs and passed on down through Mt. Solon and Bridgewater. We are in a beautful country. The boys all seem delighted at the idea of getting to the Valley once more. I hope we will not be compelled to leave it any more.
Tue., 20 May 1862: We marched eleven miles today and camped three miles below Harrisonburg about twelve o'clock, and halted for about two hours. Was very agreeably spent. The people are very good to the soldiers and fed all that was in their power. It looks very much like rain.
Wed., 21 May 1862: We left our camp near Harrisonburg at six o'clock and after a march of fifteen miles we arrived at New Market about three o'clock and camped half a mile from town on the New Market & Sperryville Turnpike Road. I feel very well at the prospect of getting home again. Sweet Home.
Thu., 22 May 1862: We left our camp at the usual hour this morning and after a short march I arrived at home and spent a few pleasant hours there.
Fri., 23 May 1862: Left home this morning to join the Regiment. Got as far as Springfield and was detailed back for the purpose of gathering up the men. Got back home again and remained all night. Raining.
Sat., 24 May 1862: Still at home. Saw some of the men today.
Sun., 25 May 1862: Today I rode about forty miles and did not get to see but one of our men. Got home nine o'clock in the night.
Mon., 26 May 1862: At home and not very well.
Tue., 27 May 1862: Left home and got as far as Thomas Brubaker's and stayed all night.
Wed., 28 May 1862: Stayed all night four miles below Front Royal with Dr. Milton. I still feel very bad. Got to Winchester about one o'clock. Saw a great many Yankee prisoners. We are now with our wagons five miles below Winchester. The Regiment is down toward Charles Town.
Thu., 29 May 1862: (Compiler's note: There was no entry for this day.)
Fri., 30 May 1862: Still sick and with the wagons.
Sat., 31 May 1862: Today I was sent off with the train of wagons and we are now camped one and a half miles above Strasburg. Cloudy, damp day. I feel very bad.
Sun., 01 Jun 1862: Still with the wagons and very weak. It is still raining. Camped at Woodstock. I went out to Edinburg and stayed all night.
Mon., 02 Jun 1862: I started for home this morning and got there about for or five o'clock in the evening and stayed there about five minutes and had to leave on account of the Yankees coming in. I stayed all night with Milt and feel very bad.
Tue., 03 Jun 1862: I feel something better this morning and concluded to try and get back to the Regiment. I got to the Regiment about three o'clock and it began to rain.
Wed., 04 Jun 1862:We left our camp near New Market and started on up the Valley. We camped at Lacey Springs. I marched with the Regiment but did not feel able to do so.
Thu., 05 Jun 1862: We are camped on the Port Republic Road about three miles from Harrisonburg.
Fri., 06 Jun 1862: We are camped near Port Republic. 61 prisoners taken today.
Sat., 07 Jun 1862: We are still on the same camping ground but do not know how long we will stay here. I have the headache very bad and feel very weak.
Sun., 08 Jun 1862: This was a beautiful morning and we were all lying down and expected to have a good days rest of it when we were not expecting the enemy. The first thing we knew they were firing into our camp. Everyone was up in a moment and ready to meet them. We marched down to Port Republic and the Yankees were in town and had a cannon at the mouth of the bridge, but we soon ran them away from it and took the piece. We have been detailed as skirmishers in town and have been here all day looking for the enemy every moment but they have not made their appearance yet. About five o'clock in the evening there was heavy cannonading in the direction of Harrisonburg, and it is reported that we have driven them from their position. Sundown. The enemy has camped about two miles down the river, and we are ordered to keep our places and cook up two days rations. I have the headache very bad and feel very weak besides.
Mon., 09 Jun 1862: I was on guard last night at the bridge. Nothing of interest occurred during the night, but early this morning our troop began to cross the river and about eight o'clock we heard cannons open on Shield's Army. Old Jack had pitched into him but our Regiment did not get into the fight at all on account of being left to guard the bridge. About ten o'clock we were ordered out. We went down in quick time but before we got in the Yankee's had run and we followed them about nine miles, and then we were ordered about face. Freeman had moved his Division up to the bridge but they got there too late. We had burned the bridge and they had to stop. We took some four or five hundred prisoners, and one battery of five pieces, and a quantity of fire arms. The fight occurred about two miles below Port Republic. We retreated across Brown's Gap, that we had crossed on the 3rd of May, and camped three miles from the top and the East side of the Ridge. Last night was the first time I have ever come up as a straggler. Mac was sick and went with the wagons for several days. We marched about twenty miles today.
Tue., 10 Jun 1862: Nothing of interest. Still at the same camp. Rained all day. Got the headache.
Wed., 11 Jun 1862: Still in camp. All the baggage sent down the Ridge.
Thu., 12 Jun 1862: We left camp this morning in the direction of Port Republic about ten o'clock. We are now camped about a mile from Port Republic up the river. The Yankees have fallen back toward Harrisonburg. I have the headache very bad this evening.
Fri., 13 Jun 1862: Still at the same camp. Nothing of interest.
Sat., 14 Jun 1862: Still resting. I visited Weyer's Cave today. It is worth a trip of any person to go in and take a look at the beautiful scenes of nature's workmanship. It is about a mile from our camp. Thanks given this evening from three o'clock until sundown. There was preaching in camp this evening.
Sun., 15 Jun 1862: Everything quiet in camp. We had preaching by the Rev. Dr. Dabney this morning, and this evening they took the sacrament. Gen. Jackson partook with the multitude. It looks like rain this evening.
Mon., 16 Jun 1862: Company drill this evening at three o'clock.
Tue., 17 Jun 1862: On the tramp again. We left out camp this evening at three o'clock and marched about three miles and camped on the Waynesboro Road.
Wed., 18 Jun 1862: We began our march early this morning. After a march of seven or eight miles we went in to camp near the foot of the ridge. I had the headache very bad today. I have had the headache for nine successive days.
Thu., 19 Jun 1862: We started this morning at daylight and after a march of eighteen miles we are camped two or three miles below Michel's Station. The cherry trees and the cherries have to suffer along the road. Seven trains went down toward Gordonsville today loaded with soldiers. I have been very sick today but had to march with the rest. We crossed the Blue Ridge today at Jarman's Gap.
Fri., 20 Jun 1862: I am still complaining and was left at Charlottesville, and left at the hospital and had to sleep out of doors without a blanket.
Sat., 21 Jun 1862: I was sent away from Charlottesville today. Sent to Gordonsville and there was no place there for the sick. We went on up the Richmond Road thirty miles from Gordonsville. I feel tolerable well this morning. There is no accommodation here at this place. Frederick's Hall. It is a hard looking place.
Sun., 22 Jun 1862: I left the station today at five o'clock and started for the Regiment and stayed all night on a mans porch, about six miles below Louisa Court House at Taylorsville Station. I am getting very tired running about in this kind of a style. Oh, to God there would be peace once more so we could get home again and live in peace and pleasure as we once did.
Mon., 23 Jun 1862: I got with the Regiment today about a mile and a half below Louisa Court House. I am very weak and not fit for duty. It has the appearance of thunder showers tonight.
Tue., 24 Jun 1862: It rained all night last night but we had a tent to stay in and we kept dry. Reveille at three o'clock this morning. We got on the cars at Louisa Court House and road about twenty five miles and got off at Beaver Dam Station and lay there until near night, and then marched down the road about three miles and camped in a pine thicket. We got into camp about ten o'clock at night.
Wed., 25 Jun 1862: We left our camp early this morning and marched about fifteen miles and camped near a church sixteen miles from Richmond. We were ordered to cook up three days rations and have them in our haversacks. We are getting down among the Yankees and may expect a fight anytime. I am getting pretty near well again.
Thu., 26 Jun 1862: We began our march early this morning and marched about eighteen miles and halted in an old field close to the Yankees and slept all night. We are in about ten miles of Richmond. There was heavy firing on our right tonight and I expect tomorrow there will be a general engagement. We have very bad water in this country.
Fri., 27 Jun 1862: They commenced this morning at daylight. We are in about two miles from the field but are expected to be ordered out every minute. I have been detailed to carry off the wounded. There has been an order for only one man to carry off the wounded, so I take a gun and go into ranks. There was a big fight today but we did not get into it. We got in the field about sundown, but the Yankees had fallen back and we had possession of the field. There is a quantity of wounded and dead on the field. We slept on the field all last night and got very cold. The pickets were firing all night. It was a hard contested fight.
Sat., 28 Jun 1862: We were up early this morning and have taken a position. The pickets are still firing. We saw the Yankee Battalion this morning. There has been skirmishing all day, but there was no general engagement. The enemy has crossed the Chickahominy and blew up the bridge. They are still on the retreat and I hope to God they will not stop at all. But, tomorrow is Sunday and I expect that we will have it tomorrow. We lost a quantity of men, killed and wounded. The enemy's loss was great. We captured two batteries yeaterday, a quantity of small arms, and a good many prisoners.
Sun., 29 Jun 1862: We slept on the battle field again last night. We drew two days rations last night. We have been lying still all day until about three o'clock in the evening. We were ordered to fall in but we did not go two hundred yards before we halted and stacked arms. There has been heavy cannonading over toward the Chickahominy. There was several very loud blasts which was supposed to have been magazines blown up by the enemy, and there was a very thick smoke which was supposed to be a commissary establishment. It is reported this evening that the enemy is still retreating. It is very hot today. We are not done burying the dead yet. Some of them are beginning to look and smell very bad. We went back to the same camp that we occupied the night before.
Mon., 30 Jun 1862: We were ordered up this morning at two o'clock and started out after the enemy. We passed over the battle ground of yesterday. Our men repulsed them and ran them about two miles. We marched about six miles and came up with the enemy, but there was no engagement this evening. But there was a considerable artillery fight going on all the evening. It is still raging but seems to be getting farther off. Sundown we were in about five hundred yards from the enemy battery, lying in the woods, the shells whistling over our heads, but no one was hurt in the Brigade that I have heard of. We took about six hundred prisoners and a good many Yankees came in and gave themselves up, saying that they are getting tired of the war. We camp tonight in a beautiful pine grove close to the Pamunkey River and close to the enemy.
Tue., 01 Jul 1862: This morning we were ordered up and marched out on the road to draw our crackers. We have been living on crackers and a little meat once in awhile for the last two or three weeks and God knows how much longer we will have to live off them. We got our rations for one day and started on after the enemy, for they had fallen back during the night. We overtook them about ten o'clock and they began to shell us. We lay in the woods about three hours and changed our position again. We marched out in an oats field and formed a line of battle in sight of the enemy. We lay there for some time when we were ordered to change our position again. We marched around the edge of the woods. We formed again in a hollow in the rear of our artillery for the purpose of supporting it. When our battery opened on them they began to shell our battery and we, being right in the rear of them, the shells fell thick and fast around and over us. There were three wounded in our Regiment. We were under fire for two or three hours. I was taken sick about dark and sent to the rear. The Regiment lay in the same place all night and then fell back a short distance. The enemy had fallen back during the night. I slept in an old field under a mulbery tree.
Wed., 02 Jul 1862: I went back to the Regiment and was ordered to go back to the wagons, but heard they were upwards of twenty miles back, so we concluded to camp as it had been raining all day and does not look much like clearing up yet. Oh, what I would give to be at home tonight. Hard times and harder times coming. Oh, God! Will this war never stop. We lost a great quantity of men in yesterday's fight.
Thu., 03 Jul 1862: Still getting weaker and God knows where we will find our wagons. There are three of the company with me, sick and cannot wait on themselves. We slept on the battle field of last Sunday's fight eight miles below Richmond. The Army is about twnety five miles below Richmond.
Fri., 04 Jul 1862: We got to our wagons today about three o'clock. I bought a pint of molasses and paid sixty two and a half cents for it. Butter is selling for $1.25 per pound, eggs for $1.00, and everything in proportion. We are not three miles from Richmond.
Sat., 05 Jul 1862: Still with the wagons. Had a mess of meal soup for supper and I feel a little bit better. I hope I will soon be able to join the Regiment. I bought a pint of molasses today, paid 75 cents for it and it was half water.
Sun., 06 Jul 1862: Nothing of interest today. I am still with the wagons and don't feel any better. Today was a hot day. I would like to be at home for awhile but there is no chance of it at this time.
Mon., 07 Jul 1862: It is reported that they have been fighting down on our lines today. I hope our Regiment will be up in a day or so. It is awful hot here in the tent. Still at the same place. Looks like rain.
Tue., 08 Jul 1862: Nothing of interest, but still very hot weather.
Wed., 09 Jul 1862: Still with the wagons but was making preparations to get with the Regiment tomorrow, but heard they were coming up, so I shall look for them tomorrow. I made a blackberry cobbler for supper. I had two shirts and a pair of drawers washed today and paid thirty cents for it.
Thu., 10 Jul 1862: The Regiment came in today and camped close to the place where the wagons were camped. I got with them about twelve o'clock and found them all well. Thunder showers.
Fri., 11 Jul 1862: Nothing of interest today. It rained all day. We have just gotten through devouring a big blackberry pie for supper.
Sat., 12 Jul 1862: Nothing of interest today. Squad drill and dress parade.
Sun., 13 Jul 1862: Inspection this morning and dress parade this evening.
Mon., 14 Jul 1862: Company drill this morning, squad drills at nine o'clock. Battalion drill this evening at five o'clock. Dress parade at seven. Received orders to cook two days rations and be ready to march tomorrow morning at nine o'clock.
Tue., 15 Jul 1862: We did not march today, but our wagons left early this morning. A pretty hard thunder shower. We have orders to march in the morning at five o'clock.
Wed., 16 Jul 1862: We left our camp early this morning and marched in the direction of Richmond. Got there about seven o'clock, and marched in Capitol Square. Struck arms and rested for an hour. I went in on top of the Capitol and could see all over the city. It was a beautiful scene and almost made me forget that we were engaged in war until I cast my eye down on the ground and saw the soldiers stretched out upon the beautiful green grass 'neath the shade of the the trees, which made a nice place for a soldier to rest. The most notable and attractive of all that I saw was the beautiful monument and statue of Washington. It is built on the square and in from the Capitol. It has the statue of Patrick Henry, Marion, and Jefferson placed on it and Washington on the top on horseback. It is a grand sight to those who never saw the like before. After looking around for a while we were called to attention. We marched up to the depot and got on the cars and started toward Gordonsville. We arrived at the river where the Yankees burned the bridge and we had to get off and carry our cooking utensils over the river on a foot bridge. It is an awful hot day with a tremendous thunder storm and shower. I was in a car during the storm. We camped at Taylorsville Station.
Thu., 17 Jul 1862: Today we got on the train and steamed on up the road toward Gordonsville. We got to Louisa Court House about three o'clock, p.m., just in time to get a good soaking from a thunder shower. It commenced just as we got off the cars at the Court House, and we are now camped about a half mile from the Court House, and sixty three miles from Richmond.
Fri., 18 Jul 1862: Still camped near the Court House. Rations very scarce. Providence has provided for the soldiers by an abundance of huckleberries and blackberries. I went out to get berries and got a good soaking, and a few berries, and made five pies out of them. It rained all day.
Sat., 19 Jul 1862: We left our camp near Louisa Court House this morning early for Gordonsville. After a march of about fifteen miles we arrived at Gordonsville about four o'clock, where we are now camped for the night. It is a beautiful evening. It is reported that the Yankees are within seven miles of us at Libery Mills. Philip Printz >got to camp.
Sun., 20 Jul 1862: We lay still today at Gordonsville. Thunder showers. We have orders to march at five o'clock in the morning.
Mon., 21 Jul 1862: We began our march this morning at the appointed time. We marched four miles and camped on the Gordonsville and New Market Turnpike.
Tue., 22 Jul 1862: Company drill this morning. A beautiful day. Up tonight cooking beef. I have my health very good at this time.
Wed., 23 Jul 1862: Company drill this morning at five o'clock and squad drill at nine o'clock. It then rained the balance of the day. I have a very bad cold.
Thu., 24 Jul 1862: The camp cleaned up and preparations made to stay awhile. Battalion drill this evening at five o'clock and dress parade at six.
Fri., 25 Jul 1862: Nothing of interest today. I had my shoes half soled today, cost twenty five cents. Washed my shirt. Drew molasses today.
Sat., 26 Jul 1862: We were ordered up this morning at two o'clock and ordered to pack our cooking utensils and blankets and get ready to march at a moments warning. We started and went down within three miles of Orange Court House and lay in the bushes all day. About two o'clock there was a tremendous thunder shower and storm, that soaked the boys to the skin. After the shower was over we were ordered back to our old quarters. We had a muddy trip back to camp. The Yankees were reported to be coming up the plank road from Fredericksburg, but there was only a brigade that went towards Culpeper Court House. Our cavalry were after them. I sent ten dollars home by Lieut. Fagan.
Sun., 27 Jul 1862: It has cleared off this monring, it has the appearance of a beautiful day. Nothing of interest. We had preaching in front of our tent today. I did not learn the preacher's name.
Mon., 28 Jul 1862: Cleaned up camp today. Company drill this morning and battalion drill this afternoon at half after five, and dress parade at seven. I sent a blanket home by Mr. Ed Lauck.
Tue., 29 Jul 1862: We left Camp Friscatti this morning at sunrise, passed through Gordonsville and now we are camped near Mechanicsville nine miles North of Louisa Court House. Thomas D. Waters got to camp today. Thunder showers.
Wed., 30 Jul 1862: Cleaned up our camp. Thunder showers. No news.
Thu., 31 Jul 1862: Still lounging in the camp with nothing to do. Had a mess of apple dumplings and milk for dinner.
Fri., 01 Aug 1862: Drill this morning and evening. A beautiful day. Fried chicken for breakfast.
Sat., 02 Aug 1862: Everything quiet in camp. It is reported that there was a skirmish at Orange Court House this morning and we had lost. Seven men killed and several wounded.
Sun., 03 Aug 1862: Inspection this morning at nine o'clock. After inspection several of us concluded to take a trip in the country. We were over taken by a negro in a cart so we concluded to get in and ride. Everything went very well until we came to a hill, when the mule started to run down the hill as fast as he could, and kicking every jump. Tom jumped out and Davy>, myself and the driver stayed in the cart until we succeeded in bringing him to a halt. There was no one hurt, only the cart bed was somewhat out of line, and we were soon on the road again, but we footed it the rest of the way. We went six miles from camp and got ham, corn bread, and milk for supper, and a haversack full of apples. There was preaching before our tent today.
Mon., 04 Aug 1862: We were ordered up this morning at two o'clock to cook up a days rations and be ready to march at sun up. We did not march today and there is not much prospect of a move shortly. Brigade drill on quarter guard this evening and have to stay on until tomorrow evening at four o'clock.
Tue., 05 Aug 1862: We were ordered to pack wagons and get ready to move. All ready to move and the orders countermander, and then ordered to be ready to move tomorrow morning at five o'clock. Hot day.
Wed., 06 Aug 1862: We left our camp this morning at the appointed hour, and after a tiresome and hot march we camped on our old camp ground, four miles from Gordonsville, on the new Market Turnpike.
Thu., 07 Aug 1862: We left camp Friscatti this evening at six o'clock and marched towards Orange Court House. Halted two miles West of the Court House. We marched about seven miles by moonlight. It was a lovely night and the boys are all in high spirits.
Fri., 08 Aug 1862: We began our march at sun rise this morning. We passed through Orange Court House this morning. We then halted for a few hours and while we were resting there were two Yankee prisoners went by us, one of them was a Cracker. Our cavalry has been fighting off and on all day and have taken about forty prisoners. We moved on down this evening. We waded the Rapidan River and are now stopped in a skirt of woods to cook up two days rations, and be ready to march at a moments warning.
Sat., 09 Aug 1862:
We were part of the night cooking. The pickets began to fire in our rear.
We were orderd up to hold ourselves in readiness at a moments warning.
We lay down in our accounterments, and were called up again at twelve o'clock
at night, and moved out in the field between our camp and the river. We
lay there until day light then we were ordered back to camp. We lay there
about an hour and then began our march in the direction of Culpeper Court
House. We marched about five miles when we came up with the enemy about
three o'clock, and about four we got into the fight. N.
Atwood and myself was detailed to carry
off the wounded. There was a shell burst in our company and wounded seven.,
Their names are as follows:
2nd Lieut. William
E. Pittman I helped Lieut.
Pittman back to the Dr. and went back
again and found John Berry wounded.
I helped him back to the Dr. and went back again and found Lieut.
D. C. Grayson wounded, and Lieut.
J. W. Mauck, and Sergt.
James O. Wood dead. We carried them
off the field about twelve o'clock at night. We took a good many prisoners. Sun., 10 Aug 1862:
This morning I went out upon the battle field to look for wounded and found
one of our men, Henry Lucas,
dead upon the field. We carried him off the field, then proceeded to bury
the dead. We put John
W. Mauck and James
O. Wood in one grave. Just as we were
about to finish filling up the grave of Lucas there was a stampede among
the stragglers, caused by a false alarm given by the cavalry. We had to
leave before we finished our job. We went back as far as where our wounded
lay, then went back and finished filling up the grave of Lucas and then
put a rail pen around their graves with a board at the head. When we finished
the whole force of ours had pased on, so we had to get on back. We went
back to the hospital and stayed until a very heavy thunder shower passed
over. It was nearly sundown as we went on to the Regiment and slept soundly,
as I had not slept any of account for two nights. Mon., 11 Aug 1862: Our
force is still falling back. Seven o'clock in the morning and we are in
the same place but are under marching orders. There was not many of our
troops to go back today. The wagons are all gone towards Orange Court House.
The enemy buried their dead today under a flag of truce. Generals, Ewell
and Early of the Confederate Army and two Generals
of the Federal Army were on the field together. Tue., 12 Aug 1862:
We were ordered to build up camp fires at dark last night and be ready
to move at a moments notice. We lay down and were aroused at midnight and
fell into line. We started and marched about fifty yards and were ordered
to lay down in our tracks. We lay down in the middle of the road and slept
a nap, and were called to attention at two o'clock but did not march. We
were aroused again at day light and started back towards Orange Court House,
with orders for no man to get out of ranks under any circumstances and
when we came to a creek or river we were to wade straight on through, so
we started and it was the hottest that I have felt for some time. When
we came to the first creek there was some of the men who went over on a
pole and the General made them wade back and then wade with the balance
of the men. The General had all foot bridges cut down so there was no chance
but to wade. We came on up to the Rapidan and waded it. I was so hot and
wading the river made my legs so stiff, it was with a great deal of reluctance
that I could get along. There was a caisson that blew up on the road just
below Orange Court House and and killed the driver. We got to camp just
at dark. My feet was so sore that I could hardly get along. Mac was complaining
very much. We camped on the same old camp that we left on the Seventh,
but we returned with saddened hearts for there was six in my mess and now
only two left, Mac and
myself. Lieut. D. C. Grayson wounded in the side; Lieut.
Wm. E. Pittman had his leg broken;
Lieut. J. W. Mauck, killed; and Private,
T. D. Waters wounded through the leg. Wed., 13 Aug 1862:
We are still laying in camp. Nothing of interest. A pleasant day. Dress
parade this evening. I sent a letter home to my wife. Thu., 14 Aug 1862: A
pleasant morning. I sent a letter to
R. G. Mauck by Dr.
Miller. Have to go on picket this evening. Fri., 15 Aug 1862:
On picket today, just got into camp. Feel very unwell. Have orders to cook
up two days rations. Sat., 16 Aug 1862: We
left our camp this morning at half past five o'clock and marched about
seventeen miles on the Fredericksburg Road, and then turned to the left
on the Culpeper Road. I slept in a fence corner. I was taken sick on the
roads and sent to the wagons. The wagons are camped in an old field. Cool
night. Sun., 17 Aug 1862:
Caught up with the wagons this morning and felt very bad. The wagons moved
up to the Regiment this morning. Orders to cook up two days rations. A
beautiful day. The Regiment lay still today. Mon., 18 Aug 1862:
Lay in camp all day. The pickets had a fight today. We lost seven men in
the affair. The weather cool. Mac sent to hospital. Tue., 19 Aug 1862:
Today our Regiment witnessed the shooting of two of our men. They were
members of Company G., 10th Regt., Virginia Volunteers. They seemed to
take it easy. They were shot at five o'clock. One of them was a man of
a family consisting of a wife and several children. Their names were Rogers and Layman
Private N. Atwood
Private >T. S. Weaver
Private J. E. Beasley
Private T. D. Waters
Private J. M. Baker
Private T. Price
2nd Lieut. William
I helped Lieut. Pittman back to the Dr. and went back again and found John Berry wounded. I helped him back to the Dr. and went back again and found Lieut. D. C. Grayson wounded, and Lieut. J. W. Mauck, and Sergt. James O. Wood dead. We carried them off the field about twelve o'clock at night. We took a good many prisoners.
Sun., 10 Aug 1862: This morning I went out upon the battle field to look for wounded and found one of our men, Henry Lucas, dead upon the field. We carried him off the field, then proceeded to bury the dead.
We put John W. Mauck and James O. Wood in one grave. Just as we were about to finish filling up the grave of Lucas there was a stampede among the stragglers, caused by a false alarm given by the cavalry. We had to leave before we finished our job. We went back as far as where our wounded lay, then went back and finished filling up the grave of Lucas and then put a rail pen around their graves with a board at the head. When we finished the whole force of ours had pased on, so we had to get on back. We went back to the hospital and stayed until a very heavy thunder shower passed over. It was nearly sundown as we went on to the Regiment and slept soundly, as I had not slept any of account for two nights.
Mon., 11 Aug 1862: Our force is still falling back. Seven o'clock in the morning and we are in the same place but are under marching orders. There was not many of our troops to go back today. The wagons are all gone towards Orange Court House. The enemy buried their dead today under a flag of truce. Generals, Ewell and Early of the Confederate Army and two Generals of the Federal Army were on the field together.
Tue., 12 Aug 1862: We were ordered to build up camp fires at dark last night and be ready to move at a moments notice. We lay down and were aroused at midnight and fell into line. We started and marched about fifty yards and were ordered to lay down in our tracks. We lay down in the middle of the road and slept a nap, and were called to attention at two o'clock but did not march. We were aroused again at day light and started back towards Orange Court House, with orders for no man to get out of ranks under any circumstances and when we came to a creek or river we were to wade straight on through, so we started and it was the hottest that I have felt for some time. When we came to the first creek there was some of the men who went over on a pole and the General made them wade back and then wade with the balance of the men. The General had all foot bridges cut down so there was no chance but to wade. We came on up to the Rapidan and waded it. I was so hot and wading the river made my legs so stiff, it was with a great deal of reluctance that I could get along. There was a caisson that blew up on the road just below Orange Court House and and killed the driver. We got to camp just at dark. My feet was so sore that I could hardly get along. Mac was complaining very much. We camped on the same old camp that we left on the Seventh, but we returned with saddened hearts for there was six in my mess and now only two left, Mac and myself. Lieut. D. C. Grayson wounded in the side; Lieut. Wm. E. Pittman had his leg broken; Lieut. J. W. Mauck, killed; and Private, T. D. Waters wounded through the leg.
Wed., 13 Aug 1862: We are still laying in camp. Nothing of interest. A pleasant day. Dress parade this evening. I sent a letter home to my wife.
Thu., 14 Aug 1862: A pleasant morning. I sent a letter to R. G. Mauck by Dr. Miller. Have to go on picket this evening.
Fri., 15 Aug 1862: On picket today, just got into camp. Feel very unwell. Have orders to cook up two days rations.
Sat., 16 Aug 1862: We left our camp this morning at half past five o'clock and marched about seventeen miles on the Fredericksburg Road, and then turned to the left on the Culpeper Road. I slept in a fence corner. I was taken sick on the roads and sent to the wagons. The wagons are camped in an old field. Cool night.
Sun., 17 Aug 1862: Caught up with the wagons this morning and felt very bad. The wagons moved up to the Regiment this morning. Orders to cook up two days rations. A beautiful day. The Regiment lay still today.
Mon., 18 Aug 1862: Lay in camp all day. The pickets had a fight today. We lost seven men in the affair. The weather cool. Mac sent to hospital.
Tue., 19 Aug 1862: Today our Regiment witnessed the shooting of two of our men. They were members of Company G., 10th Regt., Virginia Volunteers. They seemed to take it easy. They were shot at five o'clock. One of them was a man of a family consisting of a wife and several children. Their names were Rogers and Layman. There was one shot in the 2nd Regiment, 1st Brigade, Jackson's Division.
Wed., 20 Aug 1862: The Regiment moved on to Culpeper Court House this morning. I had permission to remain with the wagons today. I feel something better, I think I will go with the Regiment tomorrow.
Thu., 21 Aug 1862: We left our old camp this evening at sundown and went about three miles and camped on a porch. It was so dark that the wagons could not get along. Thunder showers.
Fri., 22 Aug 1862: We started this morning at nine o'clock and camped a mile below Brandy Station in six or seven miles of our Army. Traveled twenty four miles today. Another shower, I slept on fence rails last night.
Sat., 23 Aug 1862: We started this morning and went about six miles and camped in the woods. There has been fighting all day. I have not heard any of the particulars. Four of our boys were wounded at Rappahannock. Their names were B. Fristoe, mortally; W. C. Alther, B. Fleming and Joe Tobin. A tremendous storm. Seven men struck by lightning, one of them killed. They belonged to the Georgia Light Guards, >General Anderson's Division. The enemy is burning again.
Sun., 24 Aug 1862: We camped at Jefferson in a field. I am still with the wagons but I expect to join them tomorrow.
Mon., 25 Aug 1862: I gained the Regiment this morning at Jefferson. They were on the march. We passed through Amissville on the Warrenton and Sperryville Road. We turned to the right at the X (cross) roads and passed through Orleans this evening and are now laying on the road to Salem and have to go there tonight. It is now sun down. The distance to Salem is nine miles from this place, three miles below Orleans.
Tue., 26 Aug 1862: We camped in a strip of woods three miles from Salem. We pased through Salem at nine o'clock and crossed the Manassas Railroad and passed on down toward Manassas. We halted about two o'clock tonight, within four miles of Manassas. Pretty cool nights.
Wed., 27 Aug 1862: We started on our march this morning, halted at Manassas Junction about ten o'clock. We captured about seventy five or a hundred carts loaded with all kinds of baggage, and any quantity of commissaries and a lot of prisoners. They are fighting now, three o'clock, between us and the Rappahannock River. We are laying still. We got plenty of rations this evening and set the cars on fire. We are laying in a field about a mile on the Centerville Road, at sun down. We captured about one thousand prisoners and about three or four hundred negroes.
Thu., 28 Aug 1862: We marched all night and camped in an old field at daylight. I had to go on picket and did not get any sleep. We have been marching and countermarching all day and are now drawn up in battle awaiting the enemy's advance. It is now sun down. They are fighting on our right. Oh, to God it would stop ------
This is the end of Joseph F. Kauffman's diary. He was killed soon after writing the last few lines in his diary at the Second Battle of Manassas. At the fatal moment he was to the rear of Philip Printz and by the side of Ben Barham. He was laying on the ground, behind a stump, loading his gun and when he looked out to fire, Mr. Barham saw him drop. Barham called to him but got no reply and later went to him and found he had been fatally shot in the forehead. Joseph Kauffman was buried on the battle field, and afterwards his body was removed to the family grave yard near Kauffman's Mill, in Page County, Virginia.
D. L. Kauffman, a nephew of Joseph F. Kauffman, transcribed his uncle's diary in 1926 and it was published in The Page News and Courrier issue of 12 Nov 1926, page 3, columns 1 through 5 and concluded in the issue of 16 Nov 1926, page 4, columns 2 through 6. The following are some notes that were added by D. L. Kauffman, the transcriber, that help clarify some of the events described in the Diary.
Thursday, 22 May 1862; When Jackson's Army passed through the county, we went to the White House to see the boys. We met Mac, Uncle John Mauck, and others. Brother Joe, knowing his invalid wife and eight month old son would be at home, dropped out of the marching column at Salem and finding the boat on the opposite side, he waded the river and came on down home. Lieut. John W. Mauck killed at Cedar Mountain on 09 August 1862, was his uncle and Ed Beasley who lost his leg was his brother-in-law.
Written by P. M. Kauffman (brother of Joseph F. Kauffman)
Tom D. Waters and Davey C. Grayson were with him on the mule ride he referred to on Sunday, 03 August 1862.
The last time he was home he spent the night at Milly Blanham's, an old colored woman living at the foot of the mountain, who had served the family in many ways for a number of years.
Copy of sick permit --- J. K. Kauffman, being unfit for duty, has permission to go with the wagons. 20 August 1862. Signed, J. L. Campbell, Surgeon, 10th Va. Regt.
The preparation of this diary for the press, a very considerable undertaking, has been the work of D. L. Kauffman, a Luray merchant, nephew of the author. The diary was written in pencil, under all kinds of conditions. The writing was always neat though at times very dim. His nephew deciphered and transcribed tt all, calling in the aid of his uncle, P. M. Kauffman and others when points of real difficulty arose. The diary was for many years in the possession of E. V. Kauffman, of Kansas, now deceased. (E. V. Kauffman was a brother of Joseph F. Kauffman). It was given to his nephew, D. L. Kauffman, twenty seven years ago.